Silvanet Border Gateway
The Silvanet Border Gateway provides connectivity between the Silvanet Mesh Network and the Silvanet Cloud. The Border Gateway communicates with the Silvanet Cloud through the Internet to relay messages from sensors via the Mesh Network.
It is typically placed at the edge of a forest and, ideally, near a power supply. However, these gateways are LoRaWAN compliant which means they can communicate directly with Silvanet sensors, if within range.
- Connects to Mesh Gateways and sensors via a LoRaWAN mesh network.
Connects to the Internet using Mobile networks, Ethernet or SWARM satellite:
- Wireless connectivity is provided by its built-in LTE-M radio (using 4G/LTE-M with 2G/GPRS fallback).
- Wired connectivity is provided by its built-in Ethernet adapter.
- For remote deployments without mobile network coverage and no access to mains power, it has built-in support for connecting to the SWARM satellite network. Furthermore, it can operate on mains power or powered by a solar cell.
- Supports FUOTA (Firmware Update Over-the-Air) to allow its firmware to be updated remotely as required.
- The typical coverage area of a single Mesh Gateway is between 2 to 6 km, depending on the physical terrain, the density and type of forest.
- Each Border Gateway can support the deployment of up to 20 Mesh Gateways.
- Uses mains power supply through PoE (Power over Ethernet). If PoE is unavailable, the solar panel included with the device can also provide for its daily energy requirements.
The dimensions of the Silvanet Border Gateway are (LxWxH) 27.5 cm (63 cm with antennas) x 46 cm with SWARM antenna x 4.5 cm and weighs 1.3 kg.
The Silvanet Border Gateway can communicate with other Mesh Gateways and Border Gateways in a range of several kilometers. The actual range may vary depending on environmental conditions.
Mesh Network connectivity
Using LoRaWAN, the Border Gateway communicates with Mesh Gateways and directly with Silvanet sensors, if they are within range. The Border Gateway receives messages from sensors via one or more Mesh Gateways and forwards them to the Silvanet Cloud via the Internet.
The Border Gateway provides Internet connectivity to the Silvanet Cloud through either LTE-M, Ethernet and Satellite.
- Ethernet (wired - recommended)
We recommend using the Border Gateway’s built in Ethernet connectivity which requires access to a router. The Gateway supports Power over Ethernet (PoE).
- LTE-M/2G (mobile)
The Border Gateway provides built-in support for LTE-M, which requires access to a 4G network with 2G fallback (GPRS). LTE-M (Cat-M1) is suitable for IoT. An LTE-M antenna is provided to connect to a 4G network.
- SWARM Satellite (backup)
Should Ethernet and LTE become unavailable or if the Border Gateway is deployed in a remote location, a SWARM antenna is provided for Satellite uplink using the SWARM satellite network. Messages sent by SWARM are only Alerts. Dependence on a Satellite uplink only should be used for remote deployments where there is no mobile network coverage AND no access to mains power.
Firmware updates (FUOTA)
The Border Gateway supports FUOTA (Firmware Update Over The Air) with high flexibility. Large file transfers are successfully made securely and reliably even with eventual interruptions of the power supply and, consequently, sensor operation.
Firmware is updated using a chunked image transfer (no compression). All Silvanet sensors in a Site are updated at the same time using Multicast. To do this the LoRaWAN Network Protocol is temporarily switched to Class B which allows two-way communication.
In order to cope with low power and the various regional regulatory requirements, both the downlink fragment size as well as the periodicity are highly configurable allowing for stretching a FUOTA process even to a week.
The Silvanet Border Gateway requires an increased power supply compared to the Silvanet Mesh Gateway. All components of the Border Gateway are assumed to be always on as it needs to listen to any messages sent by Mesh Gateways and/or sensors. To be always on it needs a constant power supply, either through a mains power supply or using its external solar panel.
Continuous (24 hour) operation of the Border Gateway requires a power supply of 5415Ws. We recommend providing a power supply using PoE (Power over Ethernet) connected to a mains power supply. If PoE is unavailable, the solar panel included with the device can also provide for its daily energy requirements.
The Border Gateway includes an external solar panel that is 45cm by 45cm and is permanently connected to the Border Gateway. This provides a continuous power supply to charge the supercapacitors.
The solar panel ensures charging capabilities. This guarantees a power supply to the Border Gateway should a power outage occur for an extended period of time, such as ten hours or even two days.
The Silvanet Border Gateway uses supercapacitors to provide the 5415Ws power supply (5415Ws). This type of capacitor provides a large amount of power for a short duration and is continuously recharged using an external power supply, either Mains (directly or via a PoE) or solar panel.
If the solar panel is the main source of power, the supercapacitors allow the device to continue receiving power for several hours if the solar panel loses generating capacity (no sunlight) or if a power outage occurs in the case of mains power supply.
Power supply is stored in supercapacitors rather than rechargeable batteries as rechargeable batteries can ignite. This would defeat the purpose of a wildfire detection system.