When planning sensor deployments, we recommend the following:
- Location: 80 m to 100 m apart from other sensors
Install sensors to detect environmental air quality in a radius of 80 m to 100 m.
- Range: 1 km from gateways
Install sensors no further than 1 km from either a Border Gateway or Mesh Gateway.
- Sunlight: Install facing towards the sun at 12:00 noon
Sensors need to be installed facing the sun at 12:00 noon (northern or southern hemisphere) to provide maximum exposure to sunlight (even in cloudy conditions).
- Height on trees: 3 m from ground floor
To protect the sensor from human or animal interference, install the device 3m above the forest floor.
- Component ratios:
100 sensors to 1 Mesh Gateway.
- Sensor deployment density:
Spacing between sensors should be 80 m to 100 m for areas of high human activity, 400 m to 500 m for areas of low human activity. See below for details.
- Density values per hectare:
Based on WUI (Wildland Urban Interface) we recommend 0.7/ha sensors for a dense WUI and 0.1/ha sensors for a sparse WUI. See below for details.
When planning sensor deployments, the amount of human activity in an area determines the distances between sensors for that area:
- High human activity: 80-100m
Dense deployment of sensors in high-risk areas. In areas with increased human interaction, plan for a dense deployment of sensors. We recommend a short distance between sensors - approximately 80 to 100m between sensors.
- Low human activity: 400 to 500m
Sparse deployment of sensors in remote locations. In areas with little to no human activity, the distance between sensors can be increased to approximately 400 to 500m between sensors.
With this approach of variable density, the overall system cost can be reduced while maintaining an overall good wildfire detection time and rate.
Additionally, sensor deployment density determines location guidelines for Mesh Gateways and Border Gateways.
Density values per hectare
More than 80% of wildfires can be attributed to human activity, depending on the region. Of most concern are the areas where wildland and urban areas intersect. This is known as the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI).
Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) is a location where “ burnable structures are interspersed within wildland fuels”. A broader term is “Wildland Industrial Interface” where industrial infrastructure (such as roads, powerlines and railways) intermingles with wildland fuels (source: Canada Wildfire). WUI as defined by the United States Fire Administration:
The WUI is the zone of transition between unoccupied land and human development. It is the line, area or zone where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland or vegetative fuels.
Based on WUI, we recommend the following density values:
- Dense: 0.7 devices per hectare (0.7/ha):
Dense deployment of sensors next to roads, campsites or parking lots.
- Sparse: 0.1 devices per hectare (0.1/ha):
Sparse deployment of sensors in remote locations such as deep within forests.