More than 80% of wildfires can be attributed to human activity, depending on the region. Of most concern are the areas where wildland and urban areas intersect. This is known as the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). In remote areas, natural events such as lightening strikes usually cause wildfires.
We recommend that in areas with more human interaction, a dense deployment is appropriate. This means a shorter distance between sensors (80-100m) that are next to roads, parking lots or picnic-areas. In areas with little to no human activity, the distance between sensors can be increased (400-500m).
We recommend the following sensor deployment density based on human activity levels:
High human activity: 80-100m
Dense deployment of sensors in high-risk areas. In areas with increased human interaction, plan for a dense deployment of sensors. We recommend a short distance between sensors - approximately 80 to 100m between sensors.
Low human activity: 400 to 500m
Sparse deployment of sensors in remote locations. In areas with little to no human activity, the distance between sensors can be increased to approximately 400 to 500m between sensors.
With this approach of variable density, the overall system cost can be reduced while maintaining an overall good wildfire detection time and rate.
WUI density values
The area of most risk of wildfires is the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI).
According to the United States Fire Administration:
The WUI is the zone of transition between unoccupied land and human development. It is the line, area or zone where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland or vegetative fuels.
Based on the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), we recommend the following density values:
Dense: 0.7 devices per hectare (0.7/ha):
Dense deployment of sensors next to roads, campsites or parking lots.
Sparse: 0.1 devices per hectare (0.1/ha):
Sparse deployment of sensors in remote locations such as deep within forests.