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Term Description
ABP Activation By Personalization
ADR Adaptive Data Rate
ALOHA Random access protocol. LoRAWAN networks use an ALOHA based protocol so end devices do not need to peer with specific gateways.
AppEUI Application Extended Unique Identifier
AppKey Application Key
Application servers Software responsible for securely processing application data
AppSKey Application Session Key
AS Application Server


Term Description
BW Bandwidth


Term Description
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CHIRP Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse
CID Command IDentifier (MAC Command)
CR Coding Rate
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Checks are used to protect against errors in transmissions
CRC Check Redundancy Cycle


Term Description
Datagram A connectionless protocol. It doesn’t guarantee delivery. “A self-contained, independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be routed from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between this source and destination computer and the transporting network.”
DevAddr Device Address
DevEUI Device Extended Unique Identifier
Downlink Transmission from Gateways to Sensors
Downlink messages Messages sent from devices higher up in the hierarchy (Mesh Gateways and Border Gateways) to End Devices; SWARM satellites do not send downlink messages to Border Gateways


Term Description
End Device Sensors that send LoRa modulated wireless messages to gateways and receive messages wirelessly back from gateways


Term Description
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FFT Fast Fourier Transform


Term Description
Gateways Receive messages from end devices and forwards the messages to the Network Server using a backhaul service such as 4G/Ethernet/Satellite. Messages sent from End Devices hop through all Gateways within range
GDPR General Data Protection Regulations


Term Description
HSM Hardware Security Module
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol


Term Description
IoT Internet of Things
ISM radio band Industrial, Scientific, Medical. A license-free radio spectrum limited to certain bands of frequencies. These frequencies must tolerate interference generated by ISM applications.


Term Description
Join Server Software that processes join-request messages sent by End Devices
JoinEUI Join Extended Unique Identifier
JS Join Server
JSON JavaScript Object Notation



Term Description
LoRa Long Range Device to Cloud platform from Semtech. LoRa is a wireless modulation technique derived from Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) technology. It encodes information on radio waves using chirp pulses - similar to the way dolphins and bats communicate! LoRa modulated transmission is robust against disturbances and can be received across great distances. See this video for a detailed description.
LoRaWAN Long Range Wide Area Network. LoRaWAN is a Media Access Control (MAC) layer protocol built on top of LoRa modulation. It is a software layer which defines how devices use the LoRa hardware, for example when they transmit, and the format of messages.
LPWAN Low Power Wide Area Network
LTE-M Long Term Evolution Cat M1


Term Description
MIC Message Integrity Code
MIC Message Integrity Control
MQTT OASIS standard messaging protocol for IoT. It is a M2M/”Internet of Things” connectivity protocol. It is a lightweight publish/subscribe messaging protocol designed for M2M telemetry in low-bandwidth environments.
MQTT Message Queuing Telemetry Transport


Term Description
NB-IoT NarrowBand Internet of Things
Network Server Software that manages the entire network. If the Network Server receives multiple copies of the same message, it keeps a single copy of the message and discards the others (message deduplication).
NS Network Server
NwkSKey Network Session Key


Term Description
OTAA Over The Air Activation
QoS Quality of Service
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication


Term Description
Packets According to the ISO model, packets are data units within the Network Layer. It includes the source and destination IP addresses, as well as other information. Packets are, essentially, a connection-oriented protocol. It eEnsures each single packet is not dropped or compromised. It is considered reliable communication. An ACK packet is usually sent as a reply. If no ACK packet is received, the packet is simply resent.

Q, R


Term Description
SDR Software Digital Radio
SE Secure Element
SF Spreading Factor
SNR Signal over Noise Ratio
Supercapacitor A high capacity capacitor that can accept and deliver charges faster than batteries and tolerates many more charge and discharge cycles than rechargeable batteries. It provides a large amount of power for a relatively short time. It is best suited for applications where a very high number of charge/discharge cycles or longer lifetime is required. They also have low risk of spark hazard. (Wikipedia).


Term Description
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDOA Time Distance of Arrival
TOA Time of Arrival. Used to perform geopositioning.
ToA Time-on-Air. Compared to a lower spreading factor, sending a fixed amount of data (payload) with a higher Spreading Factor and a fixed bandwidth needs longer time-on-air. See LoRaWAN LR-FHSS Time-on-Air (ToA)
TTI The Things Industries
TTN The Things Network
TTS The Things Stack


Term Description
Uplink Messages Transmissions sent by end-devices to the Network Server relayed by one or many gateways. Only Border Gateways send Red Alert messages to SWARM satellites.


Term Description
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Organic chemical compounds that evaporate easily at room temperature. They vaporize into air and dissolve in water. Organic compounds are chemicals that contain carbon and are found in all living things, especially trees. VOCs are also emitted from oil and gas fields and diesel exhaust. From the US EPA: “Any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,” and related chemicals.


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